Are Names Meaningful?

October 19th, 2016

Steven De Rooij & Wouter Beek & Peter Bloem &
Stefan Schlobach & Frank Van Harmelen

Graph A:

abox:store tbox:sells abox:tent .
abox:tent tbox:costs "¥150,000" .
abox:tent rdf:type abox:Product .


Graph B:

fy:aHup pe:ko9sap_ fy:jufn12 .
fy:jufn12 pe:oao9_ "Ufou" .
fy:jufn12 rdf:type fyufnt:tmffqt .

Names have no formal meaning

Like variables in programming

unsigned contract;

short oncash;

double trouble;

return boomerang;

But names do have social meaning

Two types of meaning

Formal meaning

DL, OWL, Model Theory

Social meaning

Linked Data, SKOS, Schema.org

So… how much social meaning is there?

How much formal meaning is also encoded as social meaning?

FORMAL
SOCIAL

Think about compression

encode(FORMAL) + encode(SOCIAL)

- encode(FORMAL + SOCIAL)

= mutual information

FORMAL meaning

Classes: $\{ tbox:Product, rdfs:Resource \}$

Properties: $\{ tbox:costs, tbox:sells \}$

SOCIAL meaning

Name: http://example.com/tent

Hypothesis test

$H_0$: There is no mutual information between IRIs and their classes/properties.

Hypothesis test

$C_0$: Code that compresses optimally under $H_0$

$C_A$: Our code, uses the mutual information

$C_0$

Store meaning $m \in M$ using $\log_2 (m / |M|)$ bits per IRI.

$C_A$

$C_A$

$C_A$

Pitman-Yor code

The boundary

  • $C_A(X | B) \,\Rightarrow\, P_A(X | B)$
  • $P_A(X|B) P(B)$
  • $\sum_B P_A(X|B)P(B) \,\Rightarrow\, P_A(X) \,\Rightarrow\, C_A(X)$

So… are names meaningful?

Thank you!

WWW: wouterbeek.com, www.peterbloem.nl

Mail: w.g.j.beek@vu.nl, vu@peterbloem.nl