Structural Properties as Proxy for Semantic Relevance

Laurens Rietveld

Presented by: Wouter Beek

Take-home message

Structural semantics: structural aspects of data (e.g., graph topology) encode part of the meaning of data.

Problem statement

  • Contemporary linked datasets (RDF) are too big to run on commodity hardware
  • Client-server paradigm does not work for Semantic Web
  • Applications use ≈ 2% of server-side data

DBpedia 459M 1640 0.003%
Linked Geo Data 289M 891 1.917%
MetaLex 204M 4933 0.016%
Open-BioMed 79M 931 0.011%
BIO2RDF (KEGG) 50M 1297 2.013%
Semantic Web Dog Food 0.24M 193 62.4%


connection reliability

infrastructural costs

Solution: Relevance-Based Sampling

Find the smallest possible RDF subgraph that covers the maximum number of potential queries

  • Can we determine which triples are relevant?
  • Can we implement a scalable sampling pipeline?

Use cases

Application development (e.g., unit testing) [OpenPHACTS]

Run demos at conferences [OpenPHACTS,Data2Semantics]

Server offloading

Semi-informed sampling

2 sampling approaches

Informed Sampling

  • Existing approaches
  • Based on apriori knowledge of use (e.g., query logs)
  • Not always available
  • May not be indicative of use

Uninformed Sampling

  • Novel approach
  • No apriori knowledge needed
  • Use structural information for determining relevance

Uninformed Sampling Approach

  • Relevance determined through Network Analysis:
    1. PageRank
    2. In Degree
    3. Out Degree
  • Relevance evaluated against known queries

Ranked List of Triples

  • Graph rewrite:
  • Apply Network Analysis
  • Node weights → Triple weights
    W(triple) = max(W(subject-term),W(object-term))
  • Order triples by weight
  • Extract sample


  • Sample sizes: 1%-99%
  • Baselines:
    • Random Sample (10x)
    • Resource Frequency

Naive evaluation does not scale


  • Numbers:
    • 100 samples (i)
    • 15 sampling methods (methodss): 5 graph rewrite methods; 3 network metrics
    • 11 baseline methods (methodsb): 10 random samples; 1 resource frequency-sample
    • 6 datasets of max. 459M triples
    • Total: 1.4 trillion triples
  • We cannot use contemporary Semantic Web tooling / triple stores for this!

Scalable Approach

  • Retrieve which triples are used by a query (query grounding)
  • Use a hadoop cluster to assign weights to all triples
  • Analyze whether these (ground) triples are included in samples
  • Scalable since queries are performed once

Incomplete results

Triples used in query resultsets

Nifty optimizations

E.g., not all triples are needed for answering ground queries

  ?university :inCity ?city ;
              :rating ?high .
:university1 :inCity :london .
:university1 :rating :high .
:university2 :inCity :london .
:university2 :inCity :high .